Air Pollution & Pollutants
Science says that pollution is the presence of improper thing at particular place or the improper ratios are the pollution. When it comes to environmental pollution it usually means the air with undesirable substances or with the abnormal ratios of the constituent gasses. Though the science is looking at and every body talks and seems bothering about the physical pollution of human environment but either the people are not aware about the more destroying mental pollution or over looking it, thinking that it needs more energy and more cumulative efforts. In this article we are also limiting ourselves with the physical pollution and human participation in the environmental pollution. As we know the chief constituents of the atmosphere are the Oxygen and Nitrogen both constitute almost 98 % and other gaseous and solid particles occupy just 2% and more interestingly this lesser ratio constituents are playing the major role for creating the problem and concern for the human beings. A few year back a prominent head line of Mumbai News papers was" Thousands fishes were found on the shore near the Hazi Ali." Similar news was in the news papers of Uttar Pradesh "Colors and designs embedded in the architect of Taj Mahal are fading up." Some what similar to these about the world Heritage site Khujrahoo is hiting the news box in India in these days. All these are the visible effects of environmental pollution but most alarming effect of this pollution is adverse developments observed in the field of human health. The destroying thing is that human beings are well versed with this deadly dangerous environmental pollution for human social health but still kept on adding to increase pollution. It was the discovery of wheel, treated as the entrance of technology in the human life, and steam power that has tempted human beings to go for designing the first vehicle and start pollution of environment with changing the ratio of air carbon dioxide by adding carbon dioxide produced from the combustion of coal, this process went on with the technological advancement, industrialization and urbanization. The thorn of wound population growth has added to this through the deforestation and increased used of domestic appliances. Pollution is now just limited to health hazards but becoming alarming danger of Global Warming which might be the cause of the third world war in the future. Yet another deadly affect of this high use of CFC [Choloro flouro carbon] compound is the formation of hole in the sunscreen of earth called "Ozone Layer. The ozone layer is a layer of ozone particles scattered between 19 and 30 kilometers (12 to 30 miles) up in the Earth's atmosphere, in a region called the stratosphere. The concentration of ozone in the ozone layer is usually under 10 parts ozone per million. Without the ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun would not be stopped from entering the Earth's atmosphere and arriving at the surface, causing damage to most living species. These UV radiations are one among the cause of skin cancer in the human beings. The natural balance of ozone, Which is produced by photolysis in the stratosphere and loss of ozone by its reactions with various compounds containing nitrogen, hydrogen and chlorine. These chemicals all occur naturally in the atmosphere in very small amounts is heavily disturbed by the increasing release of CFCs to the atmosphere. Pollutants: These are may be all together a new substance or the variable ratio of the air constituents. A very few like volcano gases are the natural pollutants but most of pollutants are the products of human based activities. In most areas of Europe, America and most of the developed and developing countries these pollutants are principally the products of combustion from space heating, power generation or from motor vehicle traffic. The principal pollutants produced by industrial, domestic and traffic sources. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2): Beside causing the acid rains [refer effect on Taj Mahal] is associated with the causes of Asthma and chronic bronchitis. Carbon Monoxide (CO): Almost 90% of this is produced from the vehicle fuel combustion. This toxic gas affects the oxygen caring capacity of blood haemoglobin. Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2): These are one of the deadly pollutants, as from the industries and other sources emitted out as Nitrogen Oxides [NO] which in the air get oxidized to Nitrogen Dioxide(NO2) by reacting with Ozone (O3) and ultimately to nitrous and nitric acids causing acid rain and smog. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) consists of solids in the air in the form of smoke, dust, and vapors that can remain suspended for extended periods and is also the main source of haze which reduces visibility. The finer of these particles, when breathed in can lodge in our lungs and cause lung damage and respiratory problems. The list of chief air pollutants and their sources goes like this Carbon monoxide (CO) Incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels including petrol, diesel, and wood. Combustion of natural and synthetic products such as cigarettes. Carbon dioxide (CO2) Burning of coal, oil, and natural gases. Chloroflorocarbons (CFC) Mainly from air-conditioning systems and refrigeration. Nitrogen oxides (Nox), is produced from burning fuels including petrol, diesel, and coal. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Burning coal, mainly in thermal power plants. Some industrial processes, such as production of paper and smelting of metals, produce sulphur dioxide.